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Pleistocene aridification underlies the evolutionary history of the Caribbean endemic, insular, giant Consolea (Opuntioideae)

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doi: 10.1002/ajb2.1610
Authors:Majure, Lucas C.; Barrios, Duniel; Díaz, Edgardo; Zumwalde, Bethany A.; Testo, Weston; Negrón-Ortíz, Vivian
Author Affiliations:Primary:
University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL, United States
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom
University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, United States
Desert Botanical Garden, Department of Research, Conservation and Collections, Phoenix, AZ, United States
Planta! - Plantlife Conservation Society, Canada
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Panama City, FL, United States
, United States
Volume Title:Life without water
Volume Authors:Heyduk, Karolina, prefacer; Grace, Olwen M.; McKain, Michael R.
Source:Life without water, prefaced by Karolina Heyduk, Olwen M. Grace and Michael R. McKain. American Journal of Botany, 108(2), p.200-215. Publisher: Wiley for Botanical Society of America, Philadelphia, PA, United States. ISSN: 0002-9122
Publication Date:2021
Note:In English. Includes an appendix. 131 refs.; illus., incl. sketch map
Summary:[ The Caribbean islands are in the top five biodiversity hotspots on the planet; however, the biogeographic history of the seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) there is poorly studied. Consolea consists of nine species of dioecious, hummingbird-pollinated tree cacti endemic to the West Indies, which form a conspicuous element of the SDTF. Several species are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance, disease, sea-level rise, and invasive species and are of conservation concern. However, no comprehensive phylogeny yet exists for the clade. ] ????Methods???? We reconstructed the phylogeny of Consolea, sampling all species using plastomic data to determine relationships, understand the evolution of key morphological characters, and test their biogeographic history. We estimated divergence times to determine the role climate change may have played in shaping the current diversity of the clade. ????Results???? Consolea appears to have evolved very recently during the latter part of the Pleistocene on Cuba/Hispaniola likely from a South American ancestor and, from there, moved into the Bahamas, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Florida, and the Lesser Antilles. The tree growth form is a synapomorphy of Consolea and likely aided in the establishment and diversification of the clade. ????Conclusions???? Pleistocene aridification associated with glaciation likely played a role in shaping the current diversity of Consolea, and insular gigantism may have been a key innovation leading to the success of these species to invade the often-dense SDTF. This in-situ Caribbean radiation provides a window into the generation of species diversity and the complexity of the SDTF community within the Antilles. Abstract Copyright (2021), Botanical Society of America.
Subjects:Angiospermae; Arid environment; Biogeography; Biologic evolution; Cenozoic; Endemic taxa; Forests; Glacial environment; Paleoclimatology; Phylogeny; Plantae; Pleistocene; Quaternary; Spermatophyta; Terrestrial environment; Upper Pleistocene; Antilles; Bahamas; Caribbean region; Central America; Cuba; Florida; Greater Antilles; Hispaniola; Jamaica; Lesser Antilles; North America; Puerto Rico; South America; United States; West Indies; Cactaceae; Consolea; Insular taxa; Opuntioideae
Coordinates:N195000 N231500 W0740000 W0850000
N174100 N195800 W0681600 W0743000
N175000 N183000 W0654000 W0671500
Record ID:897184-3
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2021 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom
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