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Carbon release and transformation from coastal peat deposits controlled by submarine groundwater discharge; a column experiment study

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doi: 10.1002/lno.11438
Authors:Kreuzburg, Matthias; Rezanezhad, Fereidoun; Milojevic, Tatjana; Voss, Maren; Gosch, Lennart; Liebner, Susanne; Van Cappellen, Philippe; Rehder, Gregor
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemunde, Germany
University of Waterloo, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waterloo, ON, Canada
University of Rostock, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Rostock, Germany
GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
Volume Title:Limnology and Oceanography
Source:Limnology and Oceanography, 65(5), p.1116-1135. Publisher: American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. ISSN: 0024-3590
Publication Date:2020
Note:In English. 125 refs.; illus., incl. 1 table, sketch map
Summary:Although the majority of coastal sediments consist of sandy material, in some areas marine ingression caused the submergence of terrestrial carbon-rich peat soils. This affects the coastal carbon balance, as peat represents a potential carbon source. We performed a column experiment to better understand the coupled flow and biogeochemical processes governing carbon transformations in submerged peat under coastal fresh groundwater (GW) discharge and brackish water intrusion. The columns contained naturally layered sediments with and without peat (organic carbon content in peat 39 ± 14 wt%), alternately supplied with oxygen-rich brackish water from above and oxygen-poor, low-saline GW from below. The low-saline GW discharge through the peat significantly increased the release and ascent of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the peat (δ13CDOC - 26.9 ppm to - 27.7 ppm), which was accompanied by the production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and emission of carbon dioxide (CO2), implying DOC mineralization. Oxygen respiration, sulfate (??math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline" overflow="scroll" altimg="urn:x-wiley:00243590:media:lno11438:lno11438-math-0001" wiley:location="equation/lno11438-math-0001.png"????msubsup????mi??SO??/mi????mn??4??/mn????mrow????mn??2??/mn????mo??-??/mo????/mrow????/msubsup????/math??) reduction, and methane (CH4) formation were differently pronounced in the sediments and were accompanied with higher microbial abundances in peat compared to sand with ??math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline" overflow="scroll" altimg="urn:x-wiley:00243590:media:lno11438:lno11438-math-0002" wiley:location="equation/lno11438-math-0002.png"????msubsup????mi??SO??/mi????mn??4??/mn????mrow????mn??2??/mn????mo??-??/mo????/mrow????/msubsup????/math??-reducing bacteria clearly dominating methanogens. With decreasing salinity and ??math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline" overflow="scroll" altimg="urn:x-wiley:00243590:media:lno11438:lno11438-math-0003" wiley:location="equation/lno11438-math-0003.png"????msubsup????mi??SO??/mi????mn??4??/mn????mrow????mn??2??/mn????mo??-??/mo????/mrow????/msubsup????/math?? concentrations, CH4 emission rates increased from 16.5 to 77.3 ??fi??µ??/fi??mol m-2 d-1 during a 14-day, low-saline GW discharge phase. In contrast, oxygenated brackish water intrusion resulted in lower DOC and DIC pore water concentrations and significantly lower CH4 and CO2 emissions. Our study illustrates the strong dependence of carbon cycling in shallow coastal areas with submerged peat deposits on the flow and mixing dynamics within the subterranean estuary. Abstract Copyright (2020), The Authors. ??i??Limnology and Oceanography??/i?? published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography.
Subjects:Aliphatic hydrocarbons; Alkanes; Artificial recharge; Brackish water; Carbon; Carbon dioxide; Case studies; Chemical composition; Climate change; Coastal environment; Cores; Detection; Discharge; Dissolved oxygen; Estuarine environment; Geochemical cycle; Geologic hazards; Global; Ground water; Hydrocarbons; Land subsidence; Layered materials; Methane; Mires; Models; Natural hazards; Organic carbon; Organic compounds; Oxidation; Oxygen; Peat; Peatlands; Pore water; Preferential flow; Runoff; Sampling; Sediments; Shorelines; Simulation; Solute transport; Solutes; Springs; Submarine springs; Sulfate ion; Trace elements; Transformations; Transport; Water quality; Central Europe; Europe; Germany; Dunenweg Germany; Heiligensee and Hutelmoor Reservetelmoor; Rostock Germany
Coordinates:N541100 N541400 E0121100 E0120900
Record ID:881814-16
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2021 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom
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