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Surface water quality monitoring of an agricultural watershed for nonpoint source pollution control
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|Authors:||Poudel, D. D.|
|Author Affiliations:||Primary: |
University of Louisiana, School of Geosciences, Lafayette, LA, United States
|Volume Title:||Journal of Soil and Water Conservation|
|Source:||Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 71(4), p.310-326. Publisher: Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA, United States. ISSN: 0022-4561|
|Note:||In English. 61 refs.; illus., incl. 4 tables, sketch map|
|Summary:||Water pollution is a major environmental problem in the United States. To improve the surface water quality of the 2,493 ha (6,160 ac) Coulee Baton watershed in Louisiana, a collaborative nonpoint source pollution control study was initiated in 2004. Conservation measures and best management practices (BMPs) including cross-fencing of pasturelands (726.9 m [2,385 ft]), irrigation land leveling (12.9 ha [32 ac]), grade stabilization structures (two), irrigation water pipeline (975.4 m [3,200 ft]), and a livestock well covering a total of 92.7 ha (229 ac) of agricultural land, and repair or replacement of 80 septic systems in the watershed were voluntarily implemented by landowners and homeowners. Water samples were collected from seven monitoring sites for 66 rain events from September 24, 2009, to August 9, 2011. Laboratory determinations of water samples included total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total solids (TS), five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrate/nitrite-nitrogen (NO3/NO2-N), soluble reactive phosphate (SRP), total phosphorus (TP), total Kjeldahl N (TKN), chloride (Cl), fluoride (Fl), sulfate (SO4), and fecal coliform counts. Surface water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity, conductivity, and pH were determined in the field using YSI Sonde (YSI Incorporated, Yellow Springs, Ohio). For the watershed, DO, BOD5, and TS concentrations and fecal coliform count ranged, respectively, between 1.2 and 14.1 mg L-1 (ppm), 2 and 40.1 mg L-1, 35 and 5,719 mg L-1, and 400 × 106 and 17 × 106 most probable number (MPN) per 100 mL. The months of March, April, June, and September showed, on average, higher concentrations of TS and TDS, fecal coliform count, NO3/NO2-N, and SRP and TP, respectively. As compared to the ongoing BMPs, the post-BMPs, TSS, NO3/NO2-N, SRP, and BOD5 concentrations, on average, were lower by 56.2%, 23.1%, 82.5%, and 27.4%, respectively. Developed land use types and the failed septic systems were identified as major sources of fecal coliform pollution. These results suggest comprehensive strategies are necessary for effective nonpoint source pollution control in agricultural watersheds.|
|Subjects:||Agriculture; Aquaculture; Best management practices; Coliform bacteria; Hydrology; Land management; Land use; Monitoring; Nonpoint sources; Pollution; Rainfall; Seasonal variations; Septic systems; Soils; Surface water; Water pollution; Water quality; Gulf Coastal Plain; Louisiana; North America; United States; Bacteria; Coulee Baton Basin; Mermentau Basin|
|Coordinates:||N295000 N300000 W0920500 W0922000|
|Copyright Information:||GeoRef, Copyright 2021 American Geosciences Institute.|
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