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Protección de pozos de abastecimiento, indicadores de la calidad del agua subterránea [Protection of water wells; groundwater quality indicators]
|Online Access:||Get full text|
|Alternate Title:||Protection of water wells; groundwater quality indicators|
|Authors:||Paris, Marta; Tujchneider, Ofelia; Pérez, Marcela; D'Elia, Mónica|
|Author Affiliations:||Primary: |
Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Hídricas, Santa Fe, Argentina
|Volume Title:||Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua|
|Source:||Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua, 5(4), p.5-22. Publisher: Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Mexico. ISSN: 2007-2422|
|Note:||In Spanish with English summary. 33 refs.; illus., incl. 3 tables|
|Summary:||An indicator is a quantitative or qualitative attribute used to describe and evaluate a specific aspect of a system. It must be simple, buildable with available data and easily represented. Different organizations and programs have developed a compilation of indicators that provide synthetic information of the state and evolution of water systems. Nevertheless, these indicators may need to be adapted in order to reflect the particularities of each environment. This paper presents the indicators defined to monitor groundwater quality for the aquifer underlying the city of Esperanza (Santa Fe, Argentina), the only source of supply for the region. The disruption of the hydraulic equilibrium of the multilayer aquifer system that is being exploited has produced significant chemical changes in the water supply. The results show that, although the electrical conductivity (EC) values (usually used as a quality indicator) of the water have changed, this parameter is not a sufficient indicative of the deterioration of water quality in the exploited aquifer system. Cluster (hierarchical and K-means) and principal methods have made it possible to verify this process, to determine the affectation level and its temporal occurrence for each exploitation well. Other attributes show evidence of the rise in the overlying salt water and of downward flows from the overlying unconfined aquifer, resulting in values for EC threshold and alert levels, total dissolved solid, chlorides, sulfates, nitrates and calcium.|
|Subjects:||Agricultural waste; Agrochemicals; Alkaline earth metals; Aquifer vulnerability; Aquifers; Calcium; Case studies; Chloride ion; Chlorine; Cluster analysis; Concentration; Discharge; Electrical conductivity; Ground water; Halogens; Hydraulic conductivity; Indicators; Metals; Monitoring; Multiple aquifers; Nitrate ion; Observation wells; Pollution; Salinity; Salinization; Solutes; Statistical analysis; Sulfate ion; Urban environment; Waste disposal; Waste water; Water quality; Water supply; Water wells; Wellhead protection; Argentina; Pampas; Santa Fe Argentina; South America; Esperanza Argentina|
|Coordinates:||S312700 S312700 W0605500 W0605500|
|Copyright Information:||GeoRef, Copyright 2021 American Geosciences Institute.|
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