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Bayesian spatio-temporal reconstruction reveals rapid diversification and Pleistocene range expansion in the widespread columnar cactus Pilosocereus

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doi: 10.1111/jbi.13481
Authors:Lavor, Pâmela; Calvente, Alice; Versieux, Leonardo M.; Sanmartin, Isabel
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Universidade Regional do Cariri, Departamento de Botanica Aplicada, Crato, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
Real Jardín Botánico, Spain
Volume Title:Journal of Biogeography
Source:Journal of Biogeography, 46(1), p.238-250. Publisher: Wiley, Oxford, United Kingdom. ISSN: 0305-0270
Publication Date:2019
Note:In English. 64 refs.; illus., incl. 2 tables, sketch map
Summary:Pilosocereus is one of the richest and most widespread genera of columnar cacti, extending from south-west USA to southern Brazil. Most species occur in the seasonally dry tropical forest biome but can also be found in xeric microhabitats inside woody savannas (Cerrado) and moist forests (Brazilian Atlantic forest). The genus exhibits a highly disjunct distribution across the Neotropics. Using a 90% complete species-level phylogeny, we reconstructed the spatio-temporal evolution of Pilosocereus to explore the historical factors behind the species richness of Neotropical dry formations. Location: South America, Mesoamerica, Caribbean, south-western North America. Taxon: Genus Pilosocereus (Cactaceae, Cactoideae, Cereeae). We used plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and Bayesian inference to estimate phylogenetic relationships and lineage divergence times. Ancestral ranges were inferred within the Pilosocereus subgenus Pilosocereus s. s. clade using the Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis model in a Bayesian framework to account for parameter estimation uncertainty and the effect of geographical distance on dispersal rates. Pilosocereus was recovered as polyphyletic, with representatives of other Cereeae nested within. The Pilosocereus subgenus Pilosocereus s. s. clade originated around the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition (2.7 Ma), probably within the Caatinga seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) formation. Species divergences were dated in the Middle and Upper Pleistocene, often constrained to the same geographic region but also associated to migration events to other xeric habitats in Mesoamerica and northern South America; dispersal rates were not dependent on distance. Diversification dynamics in the Pilosocereus subgenus Pilosocereus s. s. clade agree with other infrageneric studies in cacti. Species divergence was rapid, driven by in situ diversification and migration events between SDTF dry formations and xeric microhabitats within other biomes and probably linked to Pleistocene climatic changes. This dynamic history differs from that found in woody SDTF lineages, which are older in age and characterized by low-dispersal rates and long-term isolation. Abstract Copyright (2019), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Subjects:Angiospermae; Biogeography; Cenozoic; Climate change; DNA; Genetics; Habitat; Living taxa; Molecular clocks; Neogene; Nucleic acids; Paleoclimatology; Phylogeny; Plantae; Pleistocene; Pliocene; Quaternary; Spermatophyta; Tertiary; Brazil; Caribbean region; Mexico; South America; Cactaceae; Pilosocereus
Coordinates:N160000 N260000 W0940000 W1040000
N160000 N260000 W0650000 W0750000
S140000 S040000 W0350000 W0450000
Record ID:846785-19
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2021 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom
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