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Postglacial expansion pathways of red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, in the Caribbean Basin and Florida

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doi: 10.3732/ajb.1500183
Authors:Kennedy, John Paul; Pil, Maria W.; Proffitt, C. Edward; Boeger, Walter A.; Stanford, Alice M.; Devlin, Donna J.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Florida Atlantic University at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, Ft. Pierce, FL, United States
Other:
University of Missouri at Saint Louis, United States
Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil
University of the Virgin Islands, United States Virgin Islands
Volume Title:American Journal of Botany
Source:American Journal of Botany, 103(2), p.260-276. Publisher: Wiley for Botanical Society of America, Philadelphia, PA, United States. ISSN: 0002-9122
Publication Date:2016
Note:In English. Includes appendices. 120 refs.; illus., incl. 5 tables, sketch map
Summary:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was a period of massive range contraction. Post-LGM, water-dispersed coastal species, including the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), expanded poleward as propagules were transported by ocean currents. We assessed postglacial marine expansion pathways for R. mangle within the Caribbean Basin and Florida. METHODS: Six microsatellite loci were used to genotype 237 individuals from nine R. mangle populations in the Caribbean, Florida, and Northwest Africa. We evaluated genetic variation, population structure, gene flow along alternative post-LGM expansion pathways to Florida, and potential long-distance dispersal (LDD) from West Africa to Caribbean islands. KEY RESULTS: These R. mangle populations had substantial genetic structure (FST = 0.37, P < 0.0001) with three discrete population clusters (Caribbean mainland, Caribbean islands, and Florida). Genetic connectivity along the mainland pathway (Caribbean mainland to Florida) vs. limited gene dispersal along the Antilles Island pathway (Caribbean islands to Florida) supported Florida recolonization from Caribbean mainland sources. Genetic similarity of Northwest Africa and two Caribbean islands provided evidence for trans-Atlantic LDD. We did not find a pattern of decreasing genetic diversity with latitude. CONCLUSIONS: We outline a complex expansion history for R. mangle, with discrete pathways of recolonization for Florida and Caribbean islands. Contrary to expectation, connectivity to putative Caribbean mainland refugial populations via ocean currents, and not latitude, appears to dictate genetic diversity within Caribbean island and Florida R. mangle. These findings provide a framework for further investigation of additional water-dispersed neotropical species, and insights for management initiatives.
Subjects:Biodiversity; Biogeography; Biostratigraphy; Cenozoic; Currents; Genetics; Holocene; Last glacial maximum; Latitude; Marine environment; Migration; Ocean currents; Postglacial environment; Quaternary; Statistical analysis; Africa; Antilles; Atlantic Coastal Plain; Bahamas; Belize; Caribbean region; Central America; Colombia; Costa Rica; Everglades; Florida; Greater Antilles; Gulf Coastal Plain; Hillsborough County Florida; Lesser Antilles; Martin County Florida; Monroe County Florida; Nicaragua; North America; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts; San Salvador; Senegal; South America; United States; Venezuela; West Africa; West Indies; Bocas del Toro Panama; Caribbean Basin; Diorom Boumak Senegal; Hobe Sound; Jobos Bay; Muddy Pond; North Equatorial Current; Northwestern Africa; Rhizophora; Rhizophora mangle; Saint Petersburg Florida; Twin Cays
Coordinates:N175600 N175700 W0661500 W0661600
N171100 N172500 W0623700 W0625300
N251000 N274300 W0800800 W0823200
N235700 N235800 W0743100 W0743200
Record ID:845944-4
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2020 American Geosciences Institute.
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