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Controls of basin margin tectonics on the morphology of alluvial fans in the western Ganga foreland basin's piedmont zone, India

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doi: 10.1002/gj.3010
Authors:Goswami, Pradeep K.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Kumaun University, Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Geology, Nainital, India
Volume Title:Geological Journal
Source:Geological Journal, 53(5), p.1840-1853. Publisher: Wiley, Chichester, United Kingdom. ISSN: 0072-1050
Publication Date:2018
Note:In English. 45 refs.; illus., incl. 1 table, geol. sketch maps
Summary:Six distinct alluvial fans have developed in the western Ganga basin's piedmont zone between the Ganga (aka Ganges) River in the west and the Sarda River in the east. The basin margin is demarked by the active Himalayan Frontal Thrust along which the Siwalik ranges are uplifted and placed over the alluvia of the Ganga basin. The 6 alluvial fans show marked morphological variances, but their morphometric parameters exhibit proportionality relationships with the "mountain-front sinuosity index (Smf)", "stream-gradient index (SL)", and "valley-floor width to height ratio (Vf)" of the adjoining mountain-front segments. Correlation and regression analyses reveal that these relationships are statistically significant. The size of the fan is directly proportional to the magnitude of Smf and inversely proportional to the magnitude of SL, whereas the fan gradient is inversely proportional to Smf. The higher the Smf and the lower the SL values, the larger and gentler is the alluvial fan. Given that the studied alluvial fans have developed in the same climatic zone and their drainage basins have similar physiographic, geologic, and climatic conditions, the morphological diversities among the alluvial fans are attributed to the tectonics of the basin margin. Moreover, statistical analyses further rule out any significant relationships of the fan size with area, or drainage density of the drainage basin. The lower values of Smf and Vf and higher values of SL indicate a more active nature and, thus, greater/faster uplift of the mountain-front and expected deepening of the accommodation space in the adjoining basin, which favoured vertical aggradation and development of smaller and steeper alluvial fans. Conversely, the higher values of Smf and Vf and lower values of SL indicate a less active nature and, thus, relatively lower/slower uplift of the mountain-front and thus creation of shallower accommodation space in the adjoining basin, favouring the development of larger and gentler alluvial fans. Abstract Copyright (2018), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Subjects:Alluvial fans; Basins; Drainage basins; Faults; Fluvial features; Foreland basins; Geomorphology; Landform evolution; Landforms; Landscapes; Morphometry; Piedmonts; Plate tectonics; Plates; Rivers; Sinuosity; Tectonics; Thrust faults; Uplifts; Asia; Ganga Basin; India; Indian Peninsula; Siwalik Range; Sarda River
Coordinates:N220000 N300000 E0700000 W0960000
Record ID:841473-14
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2022 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom
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