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Natural and enhanced attenuation of explosives on a hand grenade range

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doi: 10.2134/jeq2016.12.0466
Authors:Borden, Robert C.; Won, Jongho; Yuncu, Bilgen
Author Affiliations:Primary:
North Carolina State University, Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Raleigh, NC, United States
Draper Aden Associates, United States
Volume Title:Journal of Environmental Quality
Source:and [Journal of Environmental Quality, 46(5), p.961-967. Publisher: American Society of Agronomy,] Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, United States. ISSN: 0047-2425
Publication Date:2017
Note:In English. 34 refs.; illus.
Summary:2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (Royal Demolition Explosive, or RDX) deposited on hand grenade training ranges can leach through the soil and impact shallow groundwater. A 27-mo field monitoring project was conducted to evaluate the transport and attenuation of high explosives in variably saturated soils at an active grenade range located at Fort Bragg, NC. Two approaches were evaluated: (i) natural attenuation in grenade Bay C; and (ii) enhanced attenuation in Grenade Bay T. There was no evidence of TNT accumulation or leaching in surface soils or pore water in either bay, consistent with parallel laboratory studies showing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of TNT. In the untreated Bay C, the low saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) combined with high rainfall and warm summer temperatures resulted in reducing conditions (low oxidation-reduction potential), an increase in dissolved Mn, and a rapid decline in nitrate and RDX. In Bay T, the somewhat greater Ksat and lower soil organic C level resulted in more oxidizing conditions with greater RDX leaching. A single-spray application of glycerin and lignosulfonate to the soil surface in Bay T was effective in generating reducing conditions and stimulating RDX biodegradation for ∼1 yr.
Subjects:Anaerobic environment; Aquifer vulnerability; Aquifers; Biodegradation; Chemical composition; Decontamination; Drainage; Explosives; Ground water; Leaching; Lysimeters; Military facilities; Monitoring; Natural attenuation; Organic compounds; Physical properties; Pollutants; Pollution; Pore water; RDX; Reclamation; Risk assessment; Shallow aquifers; Soil pollution; Toxic materials; Transport; Triazines; Trinitrotoluene; Unexploded ordnance; Cumberland County North Carolina; North Carolina; United States; Fort Bragg North Carolina
Coordinates:N345000 N351500 W0783000 W0790700
Record ID:818317-2
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2021 American Geosciences Institute.
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