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Integrated characterization of toxicity distribution of selected heavy metals in stream sediments around Itakpe iron ore mines, North central Nigeria

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doi: 10.5539/esr.v6n1p109
Authors:Ameh, Eneojo Godwin; Idakwo, Ojochogwu Sunday; Ameh, Caroline Ojone; Lekdukun, Mercy Omojo
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Kogi State University, Department of Earth Sciences, Anyigba, Nigeria
Other:
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Volume Title:Earth Science Research
Source:Earth Science Research, 6(1), p.109-119. Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education, Toronto, ON, Canada. ISSN: 1927-0542
Publication Date:2017
Note:In English. 16 refs.; illus., incl. 14 tables, geol. sketch map
Summary:The results of the analysis were subjected to five (5) indices: contamination factor (CF); Ecological risk factor (Eri); Enrichment factor (EF); index of geo-accumulation (Igeo) and anthropogenic factor (AF). The CF results showed that the River PomPom dry and wet season sediments were collected in February and July respectively from 0cm to 10cm depth. Stainless steel spoon was used to collect the samples. The sediment samples were packaged, labeled and refrigerated for onward transportation to the laboratory. All samples were oven-dried (50° C) for about 24 hours, sieved through -80 mesh. About 1.0g of each sample was digested, filtered and the filtrates were ready for heavy metal analysis using Atomic sediments were most contaminated with Fe in both seasons, least contaminated with Cd at dry season and Zn in wet season. The Eri factor revealed pollution hazard level of middle during wet season and tiny in dry season. Pb and Ni showed strong and middle hazard level during wet season and Cu revealed middle level during dry season. The enrichment factor indicated extremely enriched for Fe in all locations in both seasons while most heavy metals showed depletion to minimal enrichment. The Igeo for both seasons showed that Fe was moderately to highly polluted in all locations. During dry season, other heavy metals showed moderately to unpolluted while in wet season Cd, Ni and Pb indicated moderately to very highly polluted. In both seasons, the % AF was very high for Fe, Cu, Pb. The AF% was very high for Ni and Cd in wet season. All sites in both seasons have experienced deterioration but more in the wet season. From these indices, the stream sediments have been significantly contaminated with Fe, Ni, Pb and Ni in most locations in both seasons.
Subjects:Environmental effects; Heavy metals; Iron ores; Metal ores; Mines; Pollution; Toxicity; Africa; Nigeria; West Africa; Itakpe Mines; Northern Nigeria
Coordinates:N073600 N073700 E0072000 E0061700
Record ID:812264-6
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2021 American Geosciences Institute.
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072 7 |a 22  |2 georeft 
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100 1 |a Ameh, Eneojo Godwin  |e analytic author  |u Kogi State University, Department of Earth Sciences, Anyigba 
245 1 0 |a Integrated characterization of toxicity distribution of selected heavy metals in stream sediments around Itakpe iron ore mines, North central Nigeria 
300 |a p. 109-119 
500 |a In English. 16 refs. 
500 |a Affiliation: Kogi State University, Department of Earth Sciences; Anyigba; NGA; Nigeria 
500 |a Affiliation: University of Port Harcourt; ; NGA; Nigeria 
500 |a Key title: Earth Science Research 
500 |a Source note: Earth Science Research, 6(1), p.109-119. Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education, Toronto, ON, Canada. ISSN: 1927-0542 
500 |a Publication type: journal article 
504 |b 16 refs. 
510 3 |a GeoRef, Copyright 2021 American Geosciences Institute. 
520 |a The results of the analysis were subjected to five (5) indices: contamination factor (CF); Ecological risk factor (Er>i`); Enrichment factor (EF); index of geo-accumulation (Igeo) and anthropogenic factor (AF). The CF results showed that the River PomPom dry and wet season sediments were collected in February and July respectively from 0cm to 10cm depth. Stainless steel spoon was used to collect the samples. The sediment samples were packaged, labeled and refrigerated for onward transportation to the laboratory. All samples were oven-dried (50° C) for about 24 hours, sieved through -80 mesh. About 1.0g of each sample was digested, filtered and the filtrates were ready for heavy metal analysis using Atomic sediments were most contaminated with Fe in both seasons, least contaminated with Cd at dry season and Zn in wet season. The Er>i` factor revealed pollution hazard level of middle during wet season and tiny in dry season. Pb and Ni showed strong and middle hazard level during wet season and Cu revealed middle level during dry season. The enrichment factor indicated extremely enriched for Fe in all locations in both seasons while most heavy metals showed depletion to minimal enrichment. The Igeo for both seasons showed that Fe was moderately to highly polluted in all locations. During dry season, other heavy metals showed moderately to unpolluted while in wet season Cd, Ni and Pb indicated moderately to very highly polluted. In both seasons, the % AF was very high for Fe, Cu, Pb. The AF% was very high for Ni and Cd in wet season. All sites in both seasons have experienced deterioration but more in the wet season. From these indices, the stream sediments have been significantly contaminated with Fe, Ni, Pb and Ni in most locations in both seasons. 
650 7 |a Environmental effects  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Heavy metals  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Iron ores  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Metal ores  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Mines  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Pollution  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Toxicity  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Africa  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Nigeria  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a West Africa  |2 georeft 
653 |a Itakpe Mines 
653 |a Northern Nigeria 
700 1 |a Idakwo, Ojochogwu Sunday,  |e analytic author 
700 1 |a Ameh, Caroline Ojone,  |e analytic author 
700 1 |a Lekdukun, Mercy Omojo,  |e analytic author 
773 0 |t Earth Science Research  |d Toronto, ON : Canadian Center of Science and Education, Feb. 2017  |x 1927-0542  |n Earth Science Research, 6(1), p.109-119. Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education, Toronto, ON, Canada. ISSN: 1927-0542 Publication type: journal article  |g Vol. 6, no. 1  |h illus., incl. 14 tables, geol. sketch map 
856 |u urn:doi: 10.5539/esr.v6n1p109