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Formation of close-in super-earths by giant impacts; effects of initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets
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|Authors:||Matsumoto, Yuji; Kokubo, Eiichiro|
|Author Affiliations:||Primary: |
Chiba Institute of Technology, Planetary Exploration Research Center, Narashino, Japan
Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, Japan
|Volume Title:||Astronomical Journal (New York)|
|Source:||The Astronomical Journal (New York), 154(1). Publisher: IOP Publishing for American Institute of Physics, Bristol, United Kingdom. ISSN: 0004-6256|
|Note:||In English. 36 refs.; illus., incl. 3 tables|
|Summary:||Recent observations have revealed the eccentricity and inclination distributions of close-in super-Earths. These distributions have the potential to constrain their formation processes. In the in situ formation scenario, the eccentricities and inclinations of planets are determined by gravitational scattering and collisions between protoplanets on the giant impact stage. We investigate the effect of the initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on the formation of close-in super-Earths. We perform N-body simulations of protoplanets in gas-free disks, changing the initial eccentricities and inclinations systematically. We find that while the eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through their evolution, the inclinations are not. When the initial inclinations are small, they are not generally pumped up since scattering is less effective and collisions occur immediately after orbital crossing. On the other hand, when the initial inclinations are large, they tend to be kept large since collisional damping is less effective. Not only the resultant inclinations of planets, but also their number, eccentricities, angular momentum deficit, and orbital separations are affected by the initial inclinations of protoplanets. Copyright (Copyright) 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.|
|Subjects:||Extrasolar planets; Gravity field; Numerical models; Orbital observations; Planetesimals; Planetology; Planets; Protoplanetary disk; Satellites; Simulation; Solar system; Stability; Super-Earths; Velocity|
|Copyright Information:||GeoRef, Copyright 2021 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by IOP Publishing Ltd., London, United Kingdom|
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