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Utilization of column studies for design optimization of field pilot and full scale denitrifying permeable reactive barriers

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Authors:Lee, Michael D.; Raymond, Richard, Jr.; Hostrop, Frederick; Begley, James F.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Terra Systems, Claymont, DE, United States
Other:
Florida State University Center for Biomedical & Toxicological Research, United States
Wilcox and Barton, United States
MT Environmental Restoration, United States
Volume Title:Proceedings of the 2016 AEHS Foundation annual international conferences; Volume 22; 26th annual international conference on Soil, water, energy, and air, March 21-24, 2016, San Diego, CA; 32nd annual international conference on Soils, sediments, water, and energy, October 17-20, 2016, Amherst, MA
Volume Authors:Kostecki, Paul T., editor; Teaf, Christopher; Calabrese, Edward J.
Source:Proceedings - Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water and Energy, Vol.22, p.8-17; 32nd annual international conference on Soils, sediments, water, and energy, Amherst, MA, Oct. 17-20, 2016, edited by Paul T. Kostecki, Christopher Teaf and Edward J. Calabrese. Publisher: University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, United States. ISBN: 978-0-988932-5-2
Publication Date:2016
Note:In English. 1 refs.; illus.
Summary:Column studies are underway using soil and ground water from a Falmouth, MA site contaminated with nitrate from septic systems. The columns were 46 inches long and 2 inches in diameter and were packed with 11 pounds of soil and had pore volumes of 592 mL. The column flow rates were about 1.2 feet/day. The tests are designed to evaluate the effectiveness of biological nitrate reduction using two loadings of Terra Systems, Inc. emulsified oil product, SRS in columns 1 and 2, and SRS-Z, a combination of SRS and zero-valent iron (ZVI) in column 3. The SRS-SD formulation with a small droplet (average 0.6 µm), a non-ionic surfactant package, with sodium lactate and inorganic nutrients, was used. The emulsion no longer appeared in the effluent after 1.3 to 2.4 pore volumes in columns 1 and 2. Complete removal of nitrate-nitrogen was observed shortly after column start-up and continued to be observed for all columns over 300 days from SRS injection, equivalent to 83 to 89 column pore volumes. Nitrate-nitrogen levels began to increase after 300 days. Sulfate was completely consumed until about 62 to 64 pore volumes. TOC levels in the effluent from the column reached as high as 3,900 mg/L as the emulsion was washed out of the columns for 3 pore volumes for columns 1 and 2 and about 11 pore volumes for column 3 with the SRS-Z. TOC levels had fallen to between 1.1 and 1.4 mg/L by day 340. On Day 355, the columns were connected. A second application of a SRS product was applied to column 1. The SRS-NR formulation was designed to be retained on the soil and used an anionic surfactant package with a 5 µm average droplet size, but without the inorganic nutrients. The connected columns have been operated for another 139 days. Phosphate was added to the influent on Day 431. Complete denitrification has been observed. TOC levels only reached a maximum of 43 mg/L and the emulsion did not break through the 138 inches of combined columns. Ortho-phosphate as phosphorus was not detected in the effluent of the columns in the 63 days since it was added to the influent at an average concentration of 0.5 mg/L. The column studies have shown that EVO can be effectively applied to stimulate naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria in Cape Cod soil, and groundwater and PRBs show promise for nitrate removal. Up to 2,244 mg of nitrate-nitrogen have been consumed by the additions of SRS. Data generated from the column study will aid in the design of the next proposed step, a field PRB demonstration on Cape Cod.
Subjects:Case studies; Contaminant plumes; Critical load; Decontamination; Degradation; Denitrification; Disposal barriers; Effluents; Eutrophication; Experimental studies; Fertilizers; Nitrate ion; Nitrogen; Nutrients; Pollution; Reactive barriers; Retention; Runoff; Septic systems; Soils; Surfactants; Waste disposal; Waste water; Water resources; Barnstable County Massachusetts; Cape Cod; Massachusetts; United States; Bacteria; Falmouth Massachusetts; Zero-valent iron
Coordinates:N413000 N413500 E0703200 W0703900
Record ID:806784-3
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2021 American Geosciences Institute.
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